Six Sigma - mind map it with Mind Pad
- Important notice:
Features and functions described on this page are for Mind Pad 2, the
version of Mind Pad was released as a new major
update (actually completely new project), so information on this page
will be relevant only to Mind Pad 2, which is available for download,
but is not supported.
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support quality assurance process
Six Sigma is a highly structured program for improving business
processes. It was created by Mikel Harry and Richard Schroeder at Motorola
in the early 1980's. Support Six Sigma process with mind mapping and Mind
Six Sigma in action:
- Describe processes that you want to improve/control.
- Add some index to the object and define your out of tolerance range.
Measure your processes and Analyze why the problem occurred.
- Improve the process to stay with tolerance. Redesign the process
to meet customers needs.
- Control the
process to stay
within goals. Verify
if the changes have met customer needs
Six Sigma with mind map:
- Describe the process to be improved with
Mind Pad. More about process
- Add some sub-topics for index, measure, improve-redesign,
Six Sigma with Mind Pad:
- Mind Pad allows to create custom designed objects. With Mind Pad you
can create custom
object for Six Sigma analysis. You can design a special object with
tolerance range, measure way description. Add properties to describe
analysis and redesign steps, improve and verify steps.
- Link Six Sigma custom designed objects to process map.
- A process improvement methodology created by Mikel Harry and Richard
Schroeder at Motorola in the early 1980's. The approach employs a
rigorous project methodology, which utilizes statistical analysis to
identify root causes. As a process measure, it means 3.4 defects per
million opportunities. www.ketch.ca/resources_glossary.html
- Literally, refers to the reduction of errors to six standard
deviations from the mean value of a process output or task
opportunities, ie about 1 error in 300,000 opportunities. In modern
practice, this terminology has been applied to a quality improvement
methodology for industry. www.balancedscorecard.org/basics/definitions.html
- A rigorous and disciplined methodology that utilizes data and
statistical analysis to measure and improve a company s operational
performance, practices and systems. Six Sigma identifies and prevents
defects in manufacturing and service-related processes. In many
organizations, it simply means a measure of quality that strives for
near perfection. http://dmreview.com/resources/glossary.cfm
- A 'measure of goodness' involving the application of statistical
methods to business processes to improve operating efficiency, reduce
variation, avoid defects and reduce waste. www.industryforum.co.uk/glossary.htm
- A measurement of process quality. Sigma is the mathematical symbol for
standard deviation. As an example, about 93% of all results from a
normal population (ie results are equally distributed above and below
the mean) fall within 3 standard deviations. The use of six sigma in a
manufacturing situation means that the company uses all the total
quality tools to improve a process so that the tolerances for the
process is at or better than six standard deviations of the process
spread. This would result in no more than 3.4 failures in 1 million
units of production. www.bpic.co.uk/jargon.htm
- Six Sigma is a highly structured program for improving business
processes and represents the latest incarnation of the quality movement.
The program, grounded in efforts to improve manufacturing quality during
the 1980s, brings the methods and analytic tools of engineers to bear on
the questions, What matters to customers?, and Where will changes to
work processes most improve these points? www.data-core.com/glossary-of-terms.htm
- Six Sigma is a quality management program to achieve "six
sigma" levels of quality. It was pioneered by Motorola in the
mid-1980s and has spread to many other manufacturing companies. GE
Aircraft Engines operates at Nine Sigma levels of quality. It continues
to spread to service companies as well. In 2000, Fort Wayne, Indiana
became the first city to implement the program in a city government. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six_Sigma
Improve process - two approaches
methodology to improve existing processes Define: out of
tolerance range. Measure: key internal processes critical
to quality. Analyze: why defects occur. Improve:
the process to stay within tolerance. Control: the process
to stay within goals.
methodology of introducing new processes. Define: the
process and where it would fail to meet customer needs. Measure:
and determine if process meets customer needs. Analyze: the
options to meet customer needs. Design: in changes to the
process to meet customers needs. Verify: the changes have
met customer needs
Six Sigma Description
Six Sigma is a quality management program to achieve "six sigma" levels of quality. It was pioneered by Motorola in the mid-1980s and has spread to many other manufacturing companies. It continues to spread to service companies as well. In 2000, Fort Wayne, Indiana became the first city to implement the program in a city government.
Six Sigma aims to have the total number of failures in quality, or customer satisfaction, occur beyond the sixth sigma of likelihood in a normal distribution of customers. Here sigma stands for a step of one standard deviation; designing processes with tolerances of at least six standard deviations will, on reasonable assumptions, yield fewer than 3.4 defects in one million.
Achievement of six-sigma quality is defined by Motorola in terms of the number of Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO).
That is, fewer than four in one million customers will have a legitimate issue with the company's products and service.
Many people believed that six-sigma quality was impossible, and settled for three to four sigmas. However market leaders have measurably reached six sigmas in numerous processes.
More about six sigma
Anyone looking at a
table of probabilities for the normal (Gaussian) distribution will wonder
what six-sigma has to do with 3.4 defects per million thingies. Only one
billionth of the normal curve lies beyond six standard deviations, or two
billionths if you count both too-high and too-low values. Conversely, a mere
three sigma corresponds to just 2.6 problems in a thousand, which would seem
a good result in many businesses.
answer has to do with practical considerations for manufacturing processes.
(The following discussion is based loosely on the treatment by Robert V.
Binder in a discussion of whether six-sigma practices can apply to software
.) Suppose that the tolerance for some manufacturing step (perhaps the
placement of a hole into which a pin must fit) is 300 micrometres, and the
standard deviation for the process of drilling the hole is 100 micrometres.
Then only about 1 part in 400 will be out of spec. But in a manufacturing
process, the average value of a measurement is likely to drift over
time, and the drift can be 1.5 standard deviations in either direction. At
any time, 6.6% of the output will be off by 1.5 sigma in each direction.
Thus, when the process has drifted by 150 micrometres, 6.6% of the product
will be off by 150 + 150 or 300 micrometres, and therefore out of spec. This
is a high defect rate.
you set the tolerance to six sigma, then a drift of 1.5 sigma in the
manufacturing process will still produce a defect only for parts that are
more than 4.5 sigma away from the average in the same direction. By the
mathematics of the normal curve, this is 3.4 defects per million.
is another reason for six sigma: a manufactured item probably has more than
one part, and some of the parts will have to fit together, which means that
the total error in two or more parts must be within tolerance. If
each step is done to three-sigma precision, an item with 100 parts will
hardly ever be defect-free. With six-sigma, even an object with 10,000 parts
can be made defect-free 96% of the time.
many things on which people rely (services, software products, etc.) are not
manufactured by machine tools to particular measurements. In these cases,
"six sigma" has nothing to do with statistical distributions, but
refers to a goal of very few defects per million, by analogy to a
manufacturing process. The usefulness of the analogy is controversial among
those concerned with quality in non-manufacturing processes.
about Quality Management
about methods of quality management and how to use mind mapping and
Mind Pad to support them. Learn about Total Quality Management method,
SWOT analysis, Six Sigma quality program.
Quality Management (TQM).
Quality assurance through statistical methods is a key component
in a manufacturing organization. Learn how to mind map TQM.
analysis is a strategic planning tool used to evaluate the
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. Use Mind Pad to support
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